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Citation Guides: How to Cite Your Sources

Books

Book: General Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
*Note: the City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown in North America. - Purdue OWL - MLA Citations, Books
In other words, you can leave off the "city of publication" information most of the time.

Book:
Single Author

Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.

Book: Two or more works by Same Author

Gutman, Robert W. Mozart: A Cultural Biography. Harcourt Brace, 1999.

---. Richard Wagner: The Man, His Mind, and His Music. U of Chicago P, 1968.

Book:
Two or Three Authors

Hock, Randolph, and Gary Price. The Extreme Searcher’s Internet Handbook: A Guide for the Serious Searcher. CyberAge Books, 2004.

Book:
Four or More Authors

Davidson, William, et al. Retailing Management. 6th ed., Wiley, 1988.

Book:
No Author

Begin the citation with the title. For example:

NAICS Desk Reference: The North American Industry Classification System Desk Reference. JIST Works, 2000.

Book: Multivolume

If using two or more volumes of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes after the title (or editor). If published over several years, give the range of years.

Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols. U of Chicago P, 1968-78.

When citing only one volume:

Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. vol. 2, U of Chicago P, 1969.

If the one volume you are using has its own individual title, you may cite the book without reference to the other volumes.

Wright, Sewell. Theory of Gene Frequencies. U of Chicago P, 1969. 

Chapter in a Book

Willson, Jr., Robert F. "William Shakespeare's Theater." The Greenwood Companion to Shakespeare: A Comprehensive Guide for Students, edited by Joseph Rosenblum, Greenwood Press, 2005, pp 47-64.

For additional examples and explanations, go to MLA Style Center and search for the resource you are wishing to cite.

Print Articles

Journal: General AuthorLastname, AuthorFirstname. "Article Title." Journal Title, vol. no. , year, pages.

Journal with Volume Numbers

Graham, Sarah. “Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960s.” Journal of American Studies, vol. 40, no.2, 2006, pp. 418-19.

Journal with only Issue Numbers

Simmons, Carolyn, and Karen Becker-Olsen. “Achieving Marketing Objectives through Social Sponsorships.” Journal of Marketing, vol. 70, 2006, pp.154-69.

Magazine (published week or every two weeks)

Reed, Stanley. “Seeing Past the War.” Business Week, 21 Aug. 2006, pp. 35-36.

Newspaper

Seward, Zachary. “Colleges Expand Early Admissions.” Wall Street Journal, 14 Dec. 2006, Eastern ed., pp. D1-D2.

For additional examples and explanations, see the MLA Style Center

Online Articles

For scholarly journals that only exist in electronic form on the Web, cite the work like you would for a print article, only conclude the entry with the following items:

Required: Date of access (day, month, and year) For example: "Accessed 23 Nov. 2020."
Optional: Include the DOI if provided, but if you do include the DOI, don't include the URL

Example:

Hargittai, E., E. M. Redmiles, J. Vitak, and M. Zimmer. “Americans’ Willingness to Adopt a COVID-19 Tracking App”. First Monday, vol. 25, no. 11, Oct. 2020, doi:10.5210/fm.v25i11.11095. Accessed 10 Nov. 2020.

For articles retrieved full text from an online database, include the name of the database

Example:

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol.10, no. 3, 2000, par. 3. Project Muse, muse.jhu.edu/article/3746320. Accessed 5 May 2007.

Or use DOI

Example:

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol.10, no. 3, 2000, par. 3. Project Muse, doi.org/10.1353/pmc.2000.0021. Accessed 5 May 2007.

For additional examples and explanations, see the MLA Style Center

Non-Periodical Works Cited Only Online

An entry for a nonperiodical publication on the Web usually contains most of the following components, in sequence:

  1. Name of the author, compiler, director, editor, narrator, performer, or translator of the work
  2. Title of the work (italicized if the work is independent; in roman type and quotation marks if the work is part of a larger work
  3. Title of the overall Web site (italicized), if distinct from item 2
  4. Version or edition used
  5. Publisher or sponsor of the site; if not available, use N.p.
  6. Date of publication (day, month, and year, as available); if nothing is available, use n.d.
  7. URL minus the "http:" or "https:"
  8. Date of access (day, month, and year)

Example:

Quade, Alex. "Elite Team Rescues Troops behind Enemy Lines." CNN.com. Cable News Network, 19 Mar. 2007. Accessed 21 Mar. 2007.

Example with no author:

"Hourly News Summary." National Public Radio. Natl. Public Radio, 20 July 2007. Accessed 20 July 2007.

Online Map:

Map of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Google Maps, 2018, maps.google.com.

Tweet (Twitter Post):

User's Twitter handle. "Title of the tweet." Date, and time of posting using the reader's time zone. Include the date accessed if you deem it necessary.

@testauthor (Test Author's Full Name). "This has sure been a hot summer." Twitter, 12 August 2019, 2:36 p.m. twitter.com/testauthor/status/969604434547367936.

For additional examples and explanations, see the MLA Style Center: Citing a Twitter ThreadCiting an Online Map

Online Works Cited with Print Publication Data

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher Name often shortened, Year of publication. Website Name, URL. Accessed Day Month Year site was visited.

  1. Title of the database or website (italicized)
  2. URL of the medium consulted (not including "http:" or "https:")
  3. Include a date accessed if you think this would be helpful for others or if you think the title might be removed.

Example:

Radcliffe, Anne. The Novels of Mrs. Anne Radcliffe: Complete in One Volume. Hurst, Robinson, 1824. Google Books, books.google.com. Accessed 10 July 2019.

Example:

Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Masque of the Red Death.” The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, edited by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902, pp. 250-58. HathiTrust Digital Library, babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=coo.31924079574368;view=1up;seq= 266. Accessed 24 May 2020.

For additional examples and explanations, see the MLA Style Center - Styling Titles of Online Works

Personal Interviews, Films, Television Programs

You may include other information (names of performers, directors, etc.) if they are pertinent. List the most important as the main entry.

Personal Interview

Bush, George W. Personal Interview. 10 Feb. 2007.

Film

E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Directed by Steven Spielberg. Universal Pictures, 1982.

Recorded Film

Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. Directed by Chris Columbus. 2001. Warner Bros., 2002. 

 TV Program - DVD "The Soup Nazi." Directed by Andy Ackerman, performances by Jerry Seinfeld, Julia Louis-Dreyfus,
     Michael Richards, Jason Alexander. Seinfeld, created by Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld, season
     7,  episode 6, CastleRock Entertainment, 2 Nov 1995. DVD.
TV Program - Streaming
Service
"The Soup Nazi." Directed by Andy Ackerman, performances by Jerry Seinfeld, Julia Louis-Dreyfus,
      Michael Richards, Jason Alexander. Seinfeld, created by Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld,
      season 7, episode 6, CastleRock Entertainment,
      2 Nov 1995. Netflix, www.netflix.com.

For additional examples and explanations, see the MLA Style Center - Personal Communications; Citing Films; Citing Television Episodes

Sound Recordings, Musical Compositions, Performances

You may include other information (names of performers, directors, etc.) if they are pertinent. List album formats, if needed, at the end of your entry.

Entire Albums

The Beatles. Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club’s Band. Capitol Records, 1967. LP.

Individual Songs

Sinatra, Frank. “Strangers in the Night.” Rec. 1966. My Way: The Best of Frank Sinatra. Warner, 1996.

Spoken Word Recording

Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird, narrated by Sissy Spacek. Recorded Books, 1988.

Musical Composition

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1932. CD.

Musical Score

If part of a series, include that information after the medium.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 7 in A Major, Op. 92. 1811. New York: Belwin, 1994. Print. Kalmus ConcertMasters Series.

Performance

The Nutcracker. Dir. Richard Clark. Butler Ballet. Clowes Memorial Hall, Indianapolis. 2 Dec. 2008. Performance.

For additional examples and explanations, see the MLA Style Center

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