Invert the first author name (last name, first name) and then list all subsequent authors in proper order:
List organizations in proper order, capitalizing all important words. If you would like to use a common abbreviation, you may do so, provided you include the full name in parentheses.
Do not include academic titles such as Dr. or Ph.D. Do include Jr. or other name suffixes. Omit titles like King or Saint, as well as places ("of England").
If pseudonyms are widely known, use them as the name. If you would like to include a real name, place in square brackets.
If you are citing a newspaper article that does not list an author, put the name of the newspaper as the author. If a newswire (such as the Associated Press) is credited, use them as the author.
Associated Press. 2018. "Saudi Arabia: No Evidence Shows It Had a Hand in 9/11 Attack." New York Times, January 4, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2018/01/04/us/ap-us-sept-11-attacks-lawsuit.html.
Northwest Herald (Crystal Lake, IL). 2017. "Tablets to be X-Rayed Separately in New U.S. Airport Security Screening." July 27, 2017. SIRS Issues Researcher..
Place the year only in the second location. Provide a full date if needed later on in the citation.
Mark, Joshua J. 2009. "Socrates." Ancient History Encyclopedia. September 2, 2009. https://www.ancient.eu/socrates/.
If there is no date, include n.d. in the second location and provide an accessed date within the citation.
Micallef, Joseph V. n.d. "Origins of the July Crisis: Lighting the Fuse." Military.com. Accessed January 4, 2018. https://www.military.com/history/world-war-i-july-crisis.html.
For items that are not yet published (sometimes found through the databases as pre-pub or in press articles), use the word forthcoming in the place of the date.
If you have two or more citations with the same author and year, include letters to differentiate them, beginning with a:
Titles are listed in title case, where all important words are capitalized. Do not capitalize prepositions or articles unless they begin the title or subtitle.
Format titles that stand alone in italics:
Format titles that are part of something bigger in "quotation marks":
Typically the initial The is dropped from a magazine or newspaper title:
If local newspapers do not include the city in the name, add it in parentheses. Well-known newspapers such as the Wall Street Journal do not need an addition:
Depending on the type of source you are citing, you may need different types of retrieval information. Examples include:
When including a place of publication, use only the city if it is well known. Include the two letter postal abbreviation for the state if the city is not well known. List only the first city.
If using a self-published book with no listed location, type Self-published as the location.
If an online journal article has a DOI, use that in the citation. Format the DOI as follows:
DOIs can be found in the database record or on the first page of the article.
Nichols, Shaun. 2014. "Process Debunking and Ethics." Ethics 124 (4): 727–749. https://doi.org/10.1086/675877.
If there is no DOI, look for a permalink to the article that can be shared. Typically this is a permalink or Stable URL link. If you have found an article through the database, you will typically not be able to copy the URL in the address bar.
Nichols, Shaun. 2014. "Process Debunking and Ethics." Ethics 124 (4): 727–749. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/675877.
If you do not have a DOI or a permalink, instead include the name of the database in which you found the article.
Nichols, Shaun. 2014. "Process Debunking and Ethics." Ethics 124 (4): 727–749, JSTOR.
For online resources, provide the URL. Do not use URL shorteners like Bit.ly or TinyURL.
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