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Chicago Citation Guide - 17th Edition

A guide to using Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition

Notes & Bibliography

Notes & Bibliography is one of the two formats for the Chicago citation style. Notes & Bibliography has two main components:

  • References listed in a bibliography. These references will all have the title component second. A bibliography can include all works consulted in your research, not just those you directly refer to within the text.
  • Footnotes or endnotes within the paper. All notes must be directly related to information being cited in your paper.

References and footnotes will be cited similarly, but with some differences. Each of the examples in this guide will show you both ways.


Format your bibliography as follows:

  • Arrange citations alphabetically by author.
  • Double space all citations
  • Format all citations with a hanging indent.

If using multiple resources by the same author, use a 3-em dash (———) after the first instance of the name:

Smith, Jane. Plagiarism in Colleges. New York: Academic Press, 2016.

———. "College Students' Attitudes toward Plagiarism: A Study." Plagiarism Journal 12, no. 3 (2017): 123-142.

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