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MLA Citation Guide - 9th Ed.

MLA 9th Edition Guidelines

Generic References

You can use the main citation components to create a citation for anything, even if no examples cover your source. View other citation examples and read through the citation components page to see guidelines and formatting tips.


Author. Title of Source OR "Title of Source." Title of Container, Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Date, Location.


Template for Art Viewed In-Person

Artist. Title of Artwork. Composition Date, Museum, City. Medium (optional).

Template for Art Viewed Online

Artist. Title of Artwork. Composition Date, Website, URL. Medium (optional).

Works Cited List Entries

Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar. Little Dancer, Aged Fourteen. Circa. 1922, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Bronze sculpture.

Eberhardt, Anton. Saint George. Circa. 1760, Artstor, Sculpture.

Mondrian, Piet. Composition with Blue and Yellow. 1932, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. Oil on canvas.

In-Text Citations




See pages 331-332 in the MLA Handbook and How do I cite a museum image that I viewed in person or online? [Ask the MLA]

Class Materials

Template for Syllabus

Syllabus for Course Name. Taught by professor name, semester, Institution, City.

Template for Uploaded Materials

"Title of Materials." Course Name, taught by professor name. Canvas, Institution, URL.

Template for Item in Course Pack

Author of Item. "Title of Item." Course pack for Course Number: Course Name, compiled by professor name, semester, Institution.

Works Cited List Entries

Syllabus for College Composition 1. Taught by Jane Smith, fall 2021, Santa Fe College, Gainesville.

"Lesson 1 Slides." College Composition 1, taught by Jane Smith. Canvas, Santa Fe College, 12 Aug. 2021,

Frost, Robert. "The Path Not Taken." Course pack for ENC1101: College Composition 1, compiled by Jane Smith, fall 2021, Santa Fe College.

In-Text Citations


("Lesson 1")


See page 341 from the MLA HandbookHow do I cite a syllabus?


Template for Single Performer Events (e.g., Concert)

Performer. Type of Event. Date, Venue, City.

Template for Collaborative Performances (e.g., Play)

Author. Performance Name. Directed by Director, Company, Date, Venue, City.

Works Cited List Entry

Beatles. Concert. 15 Aug. 1965, Shea Stadium, New York.

Miranda, Lin-Manuel. Hamilton. Directed by Thomas Kail, 28 Jan. 2017, PrivateBank Theatre, Chicago.

In-Text Citations



See pages 334-335 in the MLA Handbook.

Government Bills


Author. Title of Bill. Date. Website, URL. Xth Congress, Xth session, passed Date.

Works Cited List Entry

United States, Congress. Public Law 89-236: An Act to Amend the Immigration and Nationality Act. Government Publishing Office, 89th Congress, passed 3 Oct. 1968.

Florida, Congress. Committee Substitute for Committee Substitute for House Bill No. 293 (Chapter 2017-55). 2017. State Library and Archives of Florida, Passed 2 June 2017.

In-Text Citations

(United States, Congress)

(Florida, Congress)

See page 345 in the MLA Handbook.

Personal Interviews


Interviewee. Interview. Conducted by Interviewer, Date.

Interviewee. Telephone interview with the author. Date.

Works Cited List Entry

Smith, John. Interview. Conducted by Mary Knotts, 12 Jan. 2015.

Jones, Elizabeth. Telephone interview with the author. 30 June 2021.

In-Text Citations



See page 336 in the MLA Handbook.

Theses & Dissertations


Author. Title. Date. School, Type. Website, URL.

Works Cited List Entry

Ulman, Taylor. Archetype and Brand Congruency in Advertising. 2009. U of Florida, Masters thesis,

In-Text Citation


See page 339 in the MLA Handbook.

Artificial Intelligence

***Please Note That These Examples Come from the 8th Edition***


Author. Title. Website, URL.

Works Cited List Entry

Dunlop, George. “Eliza, Computer Therapist.” Manifestation,

In-Text Citation


See MLA Handbook, 8th edition, How do I cite an artificial intelligence?

Generative AI (ChatGPT)


"Description of prompt given to AI tool." Name of AI Tool, version, Date generated, Publisher, URL.

Works Cited List Entry

"Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald" prompt. ChatGPT, Feb. 13 version, 8 Mar. 2023, OpenAI,

In-Text Citation

("Describe the symbolism")

See the MLA Style article, "How do I cite generative AI in MLA style?"

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